MATLAB Function Reference    

Preconditioned Conjugate Gradients method



x = pcg(A,b) attempts to solve the system of linear equations A*x=b for x. The n-by-n coefficient matrix A must be symmetric and positive definite, and should also be large and sparse. The column vector b must have length n. A can be a function afun such that afun(x) returns A*x.

If pcg converges, a message to that effect is displayed. If pcg fails to converge after the maximum number of iterations or halts for any reason, a warning message is printed displaying the relative residual norm(b-A*x)/norm(b) and the iteration number at which the method stopped or failed.

pcg(A,b,tol) specifies the tolerance of the method. If tol is [], then pcg uses the default, 1e-6.

pcg(A,b,tol,maxit) specifies the maximum number of iterations. If maxit is [], then pcg uses the default, min(n,20).

pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M) and pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2) use symmetric positive definite preconditioner M or M = M1*M2 and effectively solve the system inv(M)*A*x = inv(M)*b for x. If M is [] then pcg applies no preconditioner. M can be a function that returns M\x.

pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2,x0) specifies the initial guess. If x0 is [], then pcg uses the default, an all-zero vector.

pcg(afun,b,tol,maxit,m1fun,m2fun,x0,p1,p2,...) passes parameters p1,p2,... to functions afun(x,p1,p2,...), m1fun(x,p1,p2,...), and m2fun(x,p1,p2,...).

[x,flag] = pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2,x0) also returns a convergence flag.

pcg converged to the desired tolerance tol within maxit iterations.
pcg iterated maxit times but did not converge.
Preconditioner M was ill-conditioned.
pcg stagnated. (Two consecutive iterates were the same.)

One of the scalar quantities calculated during pcg became too small or too large to continue computing.

Whenever flag is not 0, the solution x returned is that with minimal norm residual computed over all the iterations. No messages are displayed if the flag output is specified.

[x,flag,relres] = pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2,x0) also returns the relative residual norm(b-A*x)/norm(b). If flag is 0, relres <= tol.

[x,flag,relres,iter] = pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2,x0) also returns the iteration number at which x was computed, where 0 <= iter <= maxit.

[x,flag,relres,iter,resvec] = pcg(A,b,tol,maxit,M1,M2,x0) also returns a vector of the residual norms at each iteration including norm(b-A*x0).


Example 1.

Alternatively, use this one-line matrix-vector product function

and this one-line preconditioner backsolve function

as inputs to pcg

Example 2.

flag is 1 because pcg does not converge to the default tolerance of 1e-6 within the default 20 iterations.

flag2 is 0 because pcg converges to the tolerance of 1.2e-9 (the value of relres2) at the sixth iteration (the value of iter2) when preconditioned by the incomplete Cholesky factorization with a drop tolerance of 1e-3. resvec2(1) = norm(b) and resvec2(7) = norm(b-A*x2). You can follow the progress of pcg by plotting the relative residuals at each iteration starting from the initial estimate (iterate number 0).

See Also

bicg, bicgstab, cgs, cholinc, gmres, lsqr, minres, qmr, symmlq

@ (function handle), \ (backslash)


[1]  Barrett, R., M. Berry, T. F. Chan, et al., Templates for the Solution of Linear Systems: Building Blocks for Iterative Methods, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1994.

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