The Quipper System

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QuipperLib.Synthesis

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Description

A Quipper library for synthesizing Clifford+T circuits directly from a matrix description or Euler angle description of a unitary operator. This library provides both exact and approximate synthesis.

Synopsis

Precision

type Precision = Double Source #

A type to measure precision. Precision is expressed as a number b of bits, i.e., binary digits, so that ε = 2b.

bits :: Precision Source #

Binary digits, as a unit of precision. For example, the following specifies a precision of 20 binary digits:

prec = 20 * bits

digits :: Precision Source #

Decimal digits, as a unit of precision. For example, the following specifies a precision of 30 decimal digits:

prec = 30 * digits

Phase

type KeepPhase = Bool Source #

A boolean flag indicating whether to respect global phases during circuit synthesis (True) or disregard them (False).

Auxiliary functions

apply_gate_at :: Gate -> Qubit -> Circ () Source #

Apply a gate (from the type Gate of Clifford+T operators) to the given Qubit.

apply_gates_at :: [Gate] -> Qubit -> Circ () Source #

Apply a gate list (from the type Gate of Clifford+T operators) to the given Qubit.

Note: the operators in the list are applied right-to-left, i.e., the gate list is assumed given in matrix multiplication order, but are applied in circuit order.

apply_gates2_at :: [Gate] -> Qubit -> Qubit -> Circ () Source #

Like apply_gates_at, but apply the same list of gates to two qubits in parallel.

twolevel :: Index -> Index -> [Qubit] -> (Qubit -> Circ ()) -> Circ () Source #

Input two indices i and j, a list of qubits qlist, and an imperative-style single-qubit gate U. Apply the two-level operator Ui,j to qlist. Intended usage:

twolevel i j qlist gate_U_at

The qubits in qlist are ordered lexicographically left-to-right, e.g., [|00〉, |01〉, |10〉, |11〉].

This function implements an improved version of Gray codes.

gate_T_power_at :: Int -> Qubit -> Circ () Source #

Apply a Tm gate. This gate is decomposed into Z, S, S, T, and T gates.

apply_twolevel_at :: TwoLevel -> [Qubit] -> Circ () Source #

Apply a TwoLevel gate to the given list of qubits. The qubits in qlist are ordered lexicographically left-to-right, e.g., [|00〉, |01〉, |10〉, |11〉].

apply_twolevels_at :: [TwoLevel] -> [Qubit] -> Circ () Source #

Apply a list of TwoLevel gates to the given list of qubits.

The qubits in qlist are ordered lexicographically left-to-right, e.g., [|00〉, |01〉, |10〉, |11〉].

Note: the operators in the list are applied right-to-left, i.e., the gate list is assumed given in matrix multiplication order, but are applied in circuit order.

apply_twolevel_alt_at :: TwoLevelAlt -> [Qubit] -> Circ () Source #

Like apply_twolevel_at, but use the alternate generators for two-level gates.

apply_twolevels_alt_at :: [TwoLevelAlt] -> [Qubit] -> Circ () Source #

Apply a list of TwoLevelAlt gates to the given list of qubits.

The qubits in qlist are ordered lexicographically left-to-right, e.g., [|00〉, |01〉, |10〉, |11〉].

Note: the operators in the list are applied right-to-left, i.e., the gate list is assumed given in matrix multiplication order, but are applied in circuit order.

Single-qubit exact synthesis

exact_synthesis1 :: ToGates a => a -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose the given operator exactly into a single-qubit Clifford+T circuit. The operator must be given in one of the available exact formats, i.e., any instance of the ToGates class. Typical instances are:

  • U2 DRComplex: a 2×2 unitary operator with entries from the ring ℤ[1/√2, i];
  • U2 DOmega: a 2×2 unitary operator with entries from the ring D[ω];
  • SO3 DRootTwo: a 3×3 Bloch sphere operator with entries from the ring ℤ[1/√2]. In this last case, the operator will be synthesized up to an unspecified global phase.

Multi-qubit exact synthesis

exact_synthesis :: (ToQOmega a, Nat n) => Matrix n n a -> [Qubit] -> Circ [Qubit] Source #

Decompose the given operator exactly into a Clifford+T circuit. The operator must be given as an n×n-matrix with coefficients in a ring that is an instance of the ToQRComplex class. Typical examples of such rings are DRComplex, DOmega, and QRComplex.

If this function is applied to a list of m qubits, then we must have n ≤ 2m.

The qubits in qlist are ordered lexicographically left-to-right, e.g., [|00〉, |01〉, |10〉, |11〉].

The generated circuit contains no ancillas, but may contain multi-controlled gates whose decomposition into Clifford+T generators requires ancillas.

exact_synthesis_alt :: (ToQOmega a, Nat n) => Matrix n n a -> [Qubit] -> Circ [Qubit] Source #

Like exact_synthesis, but use the alternate algorithm from Section 6 of Giles-Selinger. This means all but at most one of the generated multi-controlled gates have determinant 1, which means they can be further decomposed without ancillas.

Single-qubit approximate synthesis

z-Rotations

approximate_synthesis_zrot :: RandomGen g => Precision -> SymReal -> g -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose an Rsub /z/ = eiθZ/2 gate into a single-qubit Clifford+T circuit up to the given precision.

The parameters are:

  • a precision b ≥ 0;
  • an angle θ, given as a SymReal value;
  • a source of randomness g.

Global phase gates

approximate_synthesis_phase :: RandomGen g => KeepPhase -> Precision -> SymReal -> g -> Circ () Source #

Construct a Clifford+T circuit (with no inputs and outputs) that approximates a scalar global phase gate eiθ up to the given precision. The parameters are:

  • a flag keepphase to indicate whether global phase should be respected. (Note that if this is set to False, then this function is just a no-op);
  • a precision b ≥ 0;
  • an angle θ, given as a SymReal value;
  • a source of randomness g.

We use the following decomposition:

U(2) from Euler angles

approximate_synthesis_euler :: RandomGen g => KeepPhase -> Precision -> (SymReal, SymReal, SymReal, SymReal) -> g -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose the operator

  • U = eiα Rz(β) Rx(γ) Rz(δ)

into the Clifford+T gate base, up to the given precision. The parameters are:

  • a flag keepphase to indicate whether global phase should be respected. If this is False, the angle α is disregarded;
  • a precision b ≥ 0;
  • a tuple of Euler angles (α, β, γ, δ), given as SymReal values;
  • a source of randomness g.

U(2) from matrix

approximate_synthesis_u2 :: RandomGen g => KeepPhase -> Precision -> U2 (Cplx SymReal) -> g -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose a single-qubit unitary gate U into the Clifford+T gate base, up to the given precision, provided that det U = 1. The parameters are:

  • a flag keepphase to indicate whether global phase should be respected;
  • a precision b ≥ 0;
  • a 2×2 complex matrix, with entries expressed as Cplx SymReal values;
  • a source of randomness g.

Controlled gates

approximate_synthesis_zrot_ctrl :: RandomGen g => Precision -> SymReal -> g -> Qubit -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose a controlled Rsub /z/ = eiθZ/2 gate into a single-qubit Clifford+T circuit up to the given precision. The parameters are as for approximate_synthesis_phase. The first input is the target qubit, and the second input the control.

We use the following decomposition. It has lower T-count than the alternatives and makes good use of parallelism. Since it uses the same rotation twice, only a single run of the synthesis algorithm is required.

approximate_synthesis_phase_ctrl :: RandomGen g => KeepPhase -> Precision -> SymReal -> g -> Qubit -> Circ Qubit Source #

Decompose a controlled phase gate

into the Clifford+T gate base. The parameters are as for approximate_synthesis_phase.

We use the following decomposition. It has lower T-count than the alternatives and makes good use of parallelism. Since it uses the same rotation twice, only a single run of the synthesis algorithm is required.

If the KeepPhase flag is set, respect global phase; otherwise, disregard it.