Department of Mathematics &
Dept of Oceanography (cross-appointment)
6316 Coburg Road, PO Box 15000
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Canada B3H 4R2
Office: Chase Building, Room 104
Research I have a PhD in physical oceanography
specializing in data assimilation, and degrees
in the environmental sciences. I worked as a NSERC post-doc in industry
developing ocean applications for imaging radar. I then worked as a federal government research scientist for the
Department of Fisheries & Oceans (DFO) as a coastal oceanographer,
after which I joined Dalhousie.
My central research interests are in the general development of quantitative methods
(statistical and mathematical) for the ocean sciences. This is
motivated by the need to fuse emerging complex ocean data types with dynamical understanding.
I have a particular interest in state space models, time series methods and
My current research projects are:
Real-time Data Assimilative Forecasting
for Southern Resident Killer Whales
This work is focused on developing a forecasting system for the
Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) in the Salish Sea (southern
British Columbia and northwest Washington State. The goal is to
combine, in real time, a marine animal movement models with available SRKW location
data from visual observations and hydrophone detections to forecast SRKW locations. The purpose is to
minimize disturbance and overlap with commerical shipping. We are developing an
probabilistic forecasting system based on a state space model - an ensemble-based particle filter with
online parameter estimation. Funding: Dept of Fisheries & Oceans (DFO).
Machine Learning and Signal Processing
for Acoustic Whale detection and Underwater Ship Noise
The processing and analysis hydrophone data streams to allow for detection of
whales, and identification to species or ecotype. We are analysing
these data using signal processing and machine learning. We are also
integrating these data with ship acoustics and presence via AIS. This work is being
undertaken for southern resident killer whales in the Salish Sea, as well
as narwhal and bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. Funding: Dept of Fisheries & Oceans (DFO).
Modelling Nearshore Temperature Dynamics for
Ocean temperature dynamics in the nearshore coastal environment are
important for both understanding and protecting seagrass
ecosystems. This work makes use of an extensive temperature monitoring
field program on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, as well as high resolution numerical circulation modelling to
characterize temperature variability with metrics relevant to seagrass
ecosystem functioning. Funding: Dept of Fisheries & Oceans (DFO), NSERC
Estimation of Inorganic Carbon in the North
The northwest Atlantic ocean plays a key role in global carbon cycling due
to its ability to transport atmospheric carbon into the deep ocean. We
seek to improve estimates of the ocean carbon inventory and fluxes by
developing and applying advanced statistical approaches for mining
information in observational databases like GLODAP. Funding: Ocean Frontier Institute, NSERC
Improving Validation of Earth System Models :
Earth systems models (ESMs) form a basis for climate prediction and
improving scientific understanding. Our work seeks to look at the
comparison of multivariate outputs of ESMs, at various space
and time scales, against in-situ point observations. Funding: Environment and Climate Change Canada
Analysis of Animal Movement Data :
Bio-logging sensors record in situ marine animal movement on various
time-scales. These potentially provides information on animal movement
behaviour, but it is challenging to extract relevant information due
to multiscale variations, and non-stationarity. We have been
developing time series and signal processing approaches for analysing
these data and fusing them with movement models. Applications are
being undertaken for grey seals, as well as for northern
fur seals. Funding: MITACS, NSERC
Students and Post-Docs
- Farid Eyvazi (post-doctoral fellow): Acoustics and Machine
Learning for Whale and Ship Detection (Fall 2023)
- Ethan O'Connell (MSc Statistics): Validation of Earth Systems
Models (Spring 2023 - present)
- Fabio Soares Frazao (PhD Interdisciplinary): Deep Learning
based Acoustic Detection of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Summer 2022 - present)
- Claire Boteler (PhD Statistics): Spatio-temporal modelling of
ocean carbon in the NW Atlantic (Fall 2018 - present)
- Lauren McLennan (MSc Statistics): Diagnosing Marine Animal Behaviour from
Accelerometer Data (Fall 2017 - present)
- Aidin Jabbari (post-doctoral fellow - DFO): Temperature modelling
for marine nearshore environments (Fall 2021 - Spring 2023)
- Marine Randon (post-doctoral fellow - SFU): Development of a
Southern Resident Killer Whale forecasting system (Fall 2019 -
- Elias Krainski (post-doctoral fellow - OFI): Spatio-temporal
analysis of ocean carbon (Fall 2019 - Fall 2020)
- Siren Rühs (post-doctoral fellow - OFI): Variability in North Atlantic
deep convection (Fall 2018 - Spring 2020)
- Fran Broell (post-doctoral fellow - MITACS): Development of signal processing
techniques for animal movement data (Fall 2018 - Winter 2021)
- Erin McKee (MSc Oceanography): Analysis of Climate Variability at Ocean
Station Papa (completed Summer 2020)
- Joey Hartling (MSc Statistics): NLNG: An R Package for State
Space Models (completed Summer 2019)
- Sean Cao (BSc Honours): Time Series Analysis of Climate Indices (completed Fall 2018)
- Xiaoyu Yang (BSc Honours): Cyclical State Space Models for Ocean
Time Series (completed Winter 2017)
- Justin Slater (BSc Honours). Wavelet Analysis in Theory and
Practice (completed Summer 2014)
- David Fay (MSc Statistics): Time Series Analysis of Paleo-Climate
Data (completed Summer 2014)
- Greg Britten (MSc Biology): Time varying population dynamics of
marine fish stocks (completed Fall 2014)
- Celene Burnell (BSc Honours): Quantifying fish behaviour from
accelerometer data (completed Winter 2014)
- Cashelle Fahey (BSc Honours): Computational Bayesian approaches
for estimating time series parameters (completed Winter 2014)
- Miranda McMillian (BSc Honours): Using Copulas for modelling dependence with application to marine benthic data (completed Winter 2013)
- Paul Mattern (PhD Statistics): Parameter estimation for large scale ocean biogeochemical models (completed Summer 2012)
- Sarah Ambrose (BSc Honours): Robustifying the Kalman Filter (completed Winter 2012)
- Jessica Wong (MSc Statistics): Particle MCMC for estimating parameters in a dynamic predator prey model (Completed Spring 2012)
- Jon Briggs (PhD Statistics, Univ Auckland, New Zealand): Data Assimilation with Sequential Monte Carlo (completed Fall 2011)
- Greg Britten (BSc Honours): Modeling ecosystem stability and ecological interactions (completed Winter 2011)
- Joe Boutilier (BSc Honours) Sensitivity analysis of the parameters in a modified random walk model for marine animal movement (completed Spring 2009)
- Scott Wile (MSc Statistics): Parameter estimation and model selection for nonlinear time series (completed Fall 2008)
- Rick Danielson (Post-Doctoral Fellow): Estimation of high resolution marine winds fields from RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar (2004-2008)
- Paul Mattern (MSc, Univ Lubeck, Germany): Ensemble based data assimilation for a physical-biological model near Bermuda (completed Spring 2008)
- Elizabete Almeida (MSc Statistics): Analysis of ocean biogeochemical time series using a cyclical state space model (completed Spring 2008)
- Maud Guarracino (Post-Doctoral Fellow): Coupled biological-physical modelling of lower trophic level coastal ecosystems (2004-2008)
- Jill Falkenberg (BSc Honours): Time dependent value at risk models for financial portfolios using a Kalman filter (completed Spring 2007)
- Laura MacKenzie (MSc Statistics): Nonlinear time series analysis using a Monte Carlo Smooother (completed summer 2006)
Sam Stewart (BSc Honours): Spatial analysis of Radarsat synthetic aperture ocean imagery for wind estimation (completed winter 2006)
Chris Jones (MSc Statistics): State space models for bio-optical oceanic time series (completed winter 2006).
- Sean Smith (MSc Statistics): Options pricing and stochastic
volatility models for financial time series using particle filters (completed Winter 2006).
- Talia Beech (MSc Statistics): Statistical tools for selection of
Marine Protected Areas based on satellite imagery (completed Winter 2006)
- Cathy French (BSc Honours): Nonlinear time series models for temperature prediction (completed winter 2005)
Refereed Journal Publications:
Wong MC, Dowd M. 2023. The role of short-term temperature variability
and light in shaping the phenology and characteristics of seagrass
beds. Ecosphere . (in press)
Boteler C, Dowd M, Oliver E, Krainski E, Wallace DWR. 2023. Trends of
Anthropogenic Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in the Northwest Atlantic
Ocean Estimated Using a State Space Model. Journal of Geophysical
Research - Oceans (in press)
Dureuil M, Aeberhard WH, Dowd M, Pardo SA, Whoriskey FG, Worm
B. 2022. Reliable growth estimation from mark recapture tagging data in
elasmobranchs. Fisheries Research 256, 106488
Randon M, Dowd M, Joy R. 2022. A real-time data assimilative
forecasting system for animal tracking. Ecology e3718.
Joy R, Schick RS, Dowd M, Margolinae T, Joseph JE, Thomas L. 2022. A fine-scale marine mammal movement model for
assessing long-term aggregate noise exposure. Ecological
Modelling 464: 109798.
Wong, M.C., Dowd, M. 2021. Functional trait complementarity and
dominance both determine benthic secondary production in temperate
seagrass beds. Ecosphere 12(11): e03794
Rühs, S., Oliver, E.C., Biastoch, A., Böning, C.W., Dowd, M.,
Getzlaff, K., Martin, T. and Myers, P.G., 2021. Changing spatial
patterns of deep convection in the subpolar North Atlantic. Journal
of Geophysical Research - Oceans , e2021JC017245.
Krumhansl, K.A., Dowd, M. and Wong, M.C., 2021. Multiple Metrics of
Temperature, Light, and Water Motion Drive Gradients in Eelgrass
Productivity and Resilience. Frontiers in Marine Science ,
Driscoll S, Dowd M, Wentzell P. 2020. Simulation of 1/f^alpha noise
for analytical measurements. Journal of Chemometrics 34(7), p.e3137.
Gould J, Kienast M, Dowd M, Schefub E. 2019. An open-ocean assessment
of alkenone deltaD as a paleo-salinity proxy. Geochimica et
Cosmochimica Acta , 246:478-497.
Turk D, Dowd M, Lauvset S, Koelling J, Alonso-Perez F, Perez
F. 2017. Can Empirical Algorithms Successfully Estimate Aragonite
Saturation State in the Subpolar North Atlantic? Frontiers in Marine
Science . 4:385.
Britten G, Dowd M, Kanary, L, Worm B. 2017. Extended fisheries
recovery timelines in a changing environment. Nature
Communications 8: 15325
Gould J, Kienast M, Dowd, M. 2017. Investigation of the UK37 vs. SST
relationship for Atlantic Ocean suspended particulate alkenones: An
alternative regression model and discussion of possible sampling
bias. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
, 123: 13-21.
Wong MC, Dowd M. 2016. Model Framework to Determine the Production
Potential of Fish Derived from Coastal Habitats for Use in Habitat
Restoration, Estuaries and Coasts 1: 1-16.
Britten G, Dowd M, Worm B. 2016. Recognizing Ecological Income
Equality in the Ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of the
Sciences (Letter) doi: 10.1073/pnas.1600793113
Britten G, Dowd M, Worm B. 2016. Changing Recruitment Capacity in
Global Fish Stocks. Proceedings of the National Academy of the
Turk D, Yates KK, Vega-Rodriguez M, Toro-Farmer G, LEsperance C, Melo
N, Ramsewak D, Dowd M, Estrada SC, Muller-Karger FE, Herwitz SR,
McGillis WR. 2015. Community metabolism in shallow coral reef and
seagrass ecosystems, lower Florida Keys. Marine Ecology Progress Series 538:35-52.
- Wong MC, Dowd M. 2015. Patterns of macroinfaunal taxonomic and
functional diversity differ across seagrass habitats: a case study
in Atlantic Canada. Estuaries and Coasts 38(6):2323-2336
- Joy R, Dowd M, Battaile B, Lestenkoff P, Sterling J, Trites AW,
Routledge R. 2015. Linking northern fur seal dive behaviour to
environmental variables in the eastern Bering Sea. EcoSphere
6(5):75. DOI 10.1890/ES14-00314.1
- Britten G, Dowd M, Minto C, Ferretti F, Boero F, Lotze
H. 2014. Predator decline leads to decreased stability in a coastal
fish community. Ecology Letters 17(12):1518-1525.
- Mattern JP, Fennel K, Dowd M. 2014. Periodic time-dependent
parameters improve forecasting abilities of biological ocean
models. Geophysical Research Letters 41(19):6848- 6854.
- Dowd M, Jones E, Parslow J. 2014. A Statistical Overview and
Perspectives on Data Assimilation for Marine Biogeochemical
Models. Environmetrics, 25(4):203-213
- Boyce D, Dowd M, Lewis, M, Worm B. 2014. Estimating global
chlorophyll changes over the past century. Progress in Oceanography, 122: 163-173
- Wong M, Dowd M. 2014. Role of invasive green crabs in the food web of an intertidal sand flat determined from field observations and a dynamic simulation model. Estuaries and Coasts 37(4): 1004-1016.
- Dowd M, Grant J, Lu L. 2014. Predictive Modeling Of Marine Benthic Macrofauna And Its Use To Inform Spatial Monitoring Design. Ecological Applications, 24(4): 862-876
- Wong M, Bravo M, Dowd M. 2013. Ecological dynamics of Zostera
marina (eelgrass) in three adjacent bays in Atlantic Canada.
Botanica Marina 56 (5-6): 413-424
- Mattern JP, Dowd M., Fennel K. 2013. Particle Filter-based Data
Assimilation for a 3-dimensional Biological Ocean Model and Satellite
Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans,
- Mattern JP, Fennel K, Dowd M. 2013. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of model hypoxia estimates for the Texas-Louisiana shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118:1–17, DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20130.
- Briggs J, Dowd M, Meyer R. 2013. Data assimilation for Large Scale Spatio-Temporal Systems using a Location Particle Smoother. Environmetrics. DOI: 10.1002/env.2184.
- Mattern JP, Fennel K, Dowd M. 2012. Estimating time-dependent parameters for a biological ocean model using an emulator approach. Journal of Marine Systems. 96-97, 32-48.
- Guarracino M, Dowd M, Sheng J, Cullen JJ. 2011. Development of a coupled biological-physical model for prediction in a coastal inlet. Continental Shelf Research. 31(16): 1713-1727.
- Dowd M and Joy R. 2011. Estimating behavioural parameters in animal movement models using a state augmented particle filter.
- Dowd M. 2011. Parameter estimation for nonlinear stochastic
dynamic systems with application to ocean biogeochemistry.
- Mattern JP, Fennel K, Dowd M. 2010. Introduction and Assessment
of Measures for Quantitative Model-Data Comparison Using Satellite
Images. Remote Sensing. 2(3), 794-818; doi:10.3390/rs2030794
- Mattern JP, Dowd M, Fennel, K. 2010. Sequential Data Assimilation
Applied to a Physical-Biological Model for the Bermuda Atlantic Time
Series Station Journal of Marine Systems. 79: 144-156
- Almeida EA, Dowd M, Flemming J, Li WKW. 2009. State Space Model
Extraction of Trends and Seasonal Variablity in Ocean Monitoring
Data. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 7:883-847.
Zhai L, Platt T, Tang C, Dowd M, Sathyendranath S, Forget M-H. 2008. Estimation of phytoplankton loss rate by remote sensing, Geophysical Research Letters , 35, L23606, doi:10.1029/2008GL035666.
- Beech T, Dowd M, Field C, Hatcher B, Andrefouet S. 2008. A stochastic approach to
marine reserve design: incorporating data uncertainty. Ecological
Coll M, Palomera I, Tudela S, Dowd M. 2008. Food web dynamics in the
South Catalan Sea ecosystem (NW Mediterranean) for the period
1978-2003. Ecological Modelling 217:95-116
- Danielson RE, Dowd M, Ritchie H. 2008. Objective analysis of
marine winds with the benefit of Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar:
a nonlinear regression framework. Journal of Geophysical Research
113, C05019, doi:10.1029/2007JC004413
- Ikeda T, Dowd M, Martin JL. 2008. Application of functional data
analysis for investigating seasonal progression and interannual
variability in plankton. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science
Dowd M. 2007. A Discussion on "Parameter Estimation for Differential
Equations: A Generalized Smoothing Approach" by JO Ramsay, G Hooker, D
Campbell, and J Cao. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series
Dowd M. 2007. Bayesian statistical data assimilation for ecosystem
models using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Journal of Marine Systems
Cranford PJ, Strain PM, Dowd M, Hargrave BT, Grant J, Archambault
M-C. 2007. Influence of Mussel Aquaculture on Nitrogen Dynamics in a
Nutrient Enriched Coastal Embayment. Marine Ecology Progress
Grant J, Curran KJ, Guyondet TL, Guglielmo T, Bacher C, Koutitonsky V
and Dowd M. 2007. A box model for carrying capacity for suspensed
mussel aquaculture in Grand-Entree, Iles-de-la-Madeline,
Quebec. Ecological Modelling . 100(1-2):193-206.
Losa SN, Vezina A, Wright D, Lu Y, Thompson K,
XsyDowd M. 2006. 3D ecosystem modelling in the North
Atlantic: relative impacts of physical and biological
parameterizations. Journal of Marine
Systems . 61: 230-245.
Dowd, M. 2006. A sequential Monte Carlo approach to marine ecological
prediction. Environmetrics. 17:435-455.
Wong MC, Barbeau MA, Dowd M, Richard K. 2006. Behavioural
mechanisms underlying observed functional responses of sea stars
Asteris vulgaris preying on juvenille sea scallops Placopecten
magellanicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series
Dowd, M. 2005. A biophysical coastal ecosystem model for assessing
environmental effects of marine bivalve aquaculture. Ecological
Modelling . 183(2-3):323-346.
Greenberg DA, Shore JA, Page FH, Dowd M. 2005. A finite
element circulation model for embayments with drying intertidal areas
with application to the Quoddy region of the Bay of Fundy. Ocean
Dowd M, Martin JL, LeGresley MM, Hanke , Page FH. 2004. A
statistical method for the robust detection of interannual changes
in plankton abundance: Analysis of 1988-1999 monitoring data from the
Bay of Fundy, Canada. Journal of Plankton Research . 26(5):509-523.
Dowd, M. 2003. Seston dynamics in a tidal embayment with shellfish
aquaculture: a model study using tracer equations. Estuarine, Coastal
and Shelf Science . 57(3):523-537.
Dowd M, Meyer R. 2003. A Bayesian approach to the ecosystem
inverse problem. Ecological Modelling . 168:39-55.
Dowd M, Martin JL, LeGresley MM, Hanke A, Page FH. 2003. Interannual variability in a plankton time
series. Environmetrics . 14(1):73-86
- Perrie W, Dunlap E, Vachon PW, Toulany B, Dowd M. 2002. Marine winds from remotely sensed measurements.
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing . 28:450-465.
Thompson KR, Dowd M, Shen Y, Greenberg D. 2002. Probabilistic
characterization of tidal mixing in a coastal embayment: a Markov
chain approach. Continental Shelf Research . 22:1603-1614
Dowd M, Vachon PW, Dobson FW, Olsen RB. 2001. Ocean wave
extraction from RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar inter-look image
cross-spectra. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing . 39(1):21-37.
Thompson KR, Dowd M, Lu Y, Smith B. 2000. Oceanographic
data assimilation and regression analysis. Environmetrics . 11:183-196.
Dowd M, Thompson KR. 1999. "Errata for 'Forecasting coastal
circulation using an approximate Kalman filter based on dynamical
modes' ". Continental Shelf Research . 19:573-574.
Dowd M. 1998. On the estimation of circulation from density
observations in coastal and continental shelf regions. Continental
Shelf Research . 18:991-1014.
Dowd M, Thompson KR. 1998. Forecasting coastal circulation
using an approximate Kalman filter based on dynamical
modes. Continental Shelf Research . 17: 1715-1735.
Dowd M. 1997. On predicting the growth of cultured
bivalves. Ecological Modelling . 104:113-131.
Dowd M, Thompson KR. 1996. Extraction of tidal streams from a
ship-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler using a
statistical-dynamical model. Journal of Geophysical Research . 101:
Other Refereed Contributions:
Krumhansl, K., Dowd, M., Wong, M.C. 2020. A characterization of the physical environment at eelgrass (Zostera marina) sites along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3361: v + 213 p.
Wong, M.C. and Dowd, M., 2017. Towards regional benchmarks of fish productivity in nearshore marine ecosystems: Model framework, habitat comparisons, and examination of regional data. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ecosystems and Oceans Science.
Wong, M.C., Dowd, M., Bravo, M., Giroux, C., Haverstock, A., Humble,
M., MacFarlane, M., Roach, S., and Rowsell, J. 2016. Nekton in
Zostera marina (eelgrass) beds and bare soft-sediment bottom on the
Atlantic Coast of Nova Scotia, Canada: species-specific density and
data calibrations for sampling gear and day-night
differences. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3155: v + 40 p.
Dowd M., Wong, M.C., and McCarthy, C. 2014. Tidal Analysis in Little
Port Joli Basin, Kejimkujik National Park Seaside, NS: Before and
After Removal of Bridge and Causeway.
Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3099: v + xx p.
Dowd, M. 2014. Dynamic modeling in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics
Second Edition, A.-H. El-Shaarawi and W. Piegorsch (eds). John
Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp. 733-736. DOI:
- Grant J, Dowd M, Chiu G. 2010. Indices of coastal ecosystem
health: a new paradigm. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 2904.
Chamberlain J, Weise AM, Dowd M, and Grant J. 2006. Modelling
approaches to assess the potential effects of shellfish aquaculture on
the marine environment . DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec Res. Doc.
CSAS Research Document available online here
Wildish, D., M. Dowd, T. Sutherland, and C. Levings. 2004. Near Field
Organic enrichment from Marine Finfish Aquaculture. In: Volume III: A
Scientific Review of the Potential Environmental Effects of
Aquaculture in Aquatic Ecosystems. Canadian Technical Report of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2450. p. 1-42.
Cranford, P., M. Dowd, J. Grant., B. Hargrave, and
S. McGladdery. 2003. Ecosystem Level Effects of Marine Bivalve
Aquaculture. In: Volume I: A Scientific Review of the Potential
Environmental Effects of Aquaculture in Aquatic Ecosystems. Canadian
Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2450. p. 51-84.
Dowd, M., F. Page, and R. Losier. 2002. Time Series Analysis of
Temperature, Salinity, Chlorophyll and Oxygen data from Tracadie Bay,
PEI. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences 2441. 86pp.
Page F, Hanke A, Martin JL, Dowd M, LeGresley MM. 2002. Multivariate
community structure and time series analyses of phytoplankton from the
Bay of Fundy: some work in progress. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic
Dowd, M., F. Page, R. Losier, P. McCurdy, G. Budgen. 2001. Physical
oceanography of Tracadie Bay, P.E.I.: Analysis of sea level, current,
wind and drifter data. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 2347. 80pp.
Singh, R., M. -I. Buzeta, M. Dowd, J.L. Martin,
M. LeGresley. 2000. Ecological Overview of Musquash Estuary: A
Proposed Marine Protected Area. Canadian Manuscript Report of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2538. 39pp.
Grant, J., M. Dowd, K.R. Thompson, C. Emerson and A. Hatcher. 1993.
Perspectives on field studies and related biological models of bivalve
growth and carrying capacity. In: Bivalve Filter Feeders in Estuaries
& Coastal Marine Ecosystem Processes . (R. Dame, ed.) Springer
Verlag. pp. 371-420.